MG-132 is a specific, potent, reversible, and cell-permeable proteasome inhibitor (Ki = 4 nM) . It reduces the degradation of ubiquitin-conjugated proteins in mammalian cells and permeable strains of yeast by the 26S complex without affecting its ATPase or isopeptidase activities. MG-132 activates c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK1), which initiates apoptosis. MG-132 also inhibits NF-?B activation with an IC50 of 3 µM and prevents ?-secretase cleavage. MG-132 induces MCPIP1 expression; induces C6 glioma cell apoptosis via oxidative stress; induces AIF nuclear translocation through down-regulation of ERK and Akt/mTOR pathway.